The analysis identifies the four socio-psychological constructs identification with a media character, schadenfreude, social comparison, and vicarious embarrassment, as important responses in the context of reality TV. Besides numerous determinants, these constructs are also linked to consequences. In particular, Eva Katharina Hammes identifies schadenfreude and identification as positive responses for the viewer. Vicarious embarrassment is found to be a rather complex response that elicits diverse consequences. Social comparison with its upward and downward forms was found to be very important during the consumption of reality TV programs and also serves as a moderator for the relationship between the identified determinants and associated socio-psychological constructs.
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