This book aims at presenting the field of Quantum Information Theory in an intuitive, didactic and self-contained way, taking into account several multidisciplinary aspects. Therefore, this books is particularly suited to students and researchers willing to grasp fundamental concepts in Quantum Computation and Quantum Information areas.The field of Quantum Information Theory has increased significantly over the last three decades. Many results from classical information theory were translated and extended to a scenario where quantum effects become important. Most of the results in this area allows for an asymptotically small probability of error to represent and transmit information efficiently. Claude E.Shannon was the first scientist to realize that error-free classical information transmission can be accomplished under certain conditions. More recently, the concept of error-free classical communication was translated to the quantum context. The so-called Quantum Zero-Error Information Theory completes and extends the Shannon Zero-Error Information Theory.