Smart City Infrastructure

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Smart City Infrastructure, Wiley
The Blockchain Perspective
Von Vishal Kumar, Vishal Jain, Bharti Sharma, Jyotir Moy Chatterjee, Rakesh Shrestha, im heise Shop in digitaler Fassung erhältlich
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SMART CITY INFRASTRUCTURE

THE WIDE RANGE OF TOPICS PRESENTED IN THIS BOOK HAVE BEEN CHOSEN TO PROVIDE THE READER WITH A BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF SMART CITIES INTEGRATED WITH AI AND BLOCKCHAIN AND RELATED SECURITY ISSUES. The goal of this book is to provide detailed, in-depth information on the state-of-the-art architecture and infrastructure used to develop smart cities using the Internet of Things (IoT), artificial intelligence (AI), and blockchain security—the key technologies of the fourth industrial revolution. The book outlines the theoretical concepts, experimental studies, and various smart city applications that create value for inhabitants of urban areas. Several issues that have arisen with the advent of smart cities and novel solutions to resolve these issues are presented. The IoT along with the integration of blockchain and AI provides efficient, safe, secure, and transparent ways to solve different types of social, governmental, and demographic issues in the dynamic urban environment. A top-down strategy is adopted to introduce the architecture, infrastructure, features, and security. AUDIENCEThe core audience is researchers in artificial intelligence, information technology, electronic and electrical engineering, systems engineering, industrial engineering as well as government and city planners. VISHAL KUMAR, PHD is an assistant professor in the Department of Computer Science and Engineering at Bipin Tripathi Kumaon Institute of Technology, Dwarahat (an Autonomous Institute of Govt. of Uttarakhand), India.

VISHAL JAIN, PHD is an associate professor at the Department of Computer Science and Engineering, School of Engineering and Technology, Sharda University, Greater Noida, UP India. He has more than 450 research citation indices with Google Scholar (h-index score 12 and i-10 index 15). BHARTI SHARMA, PHD is an assistant professor and academic head of the MCA department of DIT University, Dehradun, India. JYOTIR MOY CHATTERJEE is an assistant professor in the Information Technology Department at Lord Buddha Education Foundation (LBEF), Kathmandu, Nepal. He has published more than 60 international research paper publications, three conference papers, three authored books, 10 edited books, 16 book chapters, two Master’s theses converted into books, and one patent. RAKESH SHRESTHA, PHD is a postdoctoral researcher at the Department of Information and Communication Engineering, Yeungnam University, South Korea. Preface xvii

Acknowledgment xxi

1 DEEP DIVE INTO BLOCKCHAIN TECHNOLOGY: CHARACTERISTICS, SECURITY AND PRIVACY ISSUES, CHALLENGES, AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS 1

Bhanu Chander

1.1 Introduction 2

1.2 Blockchain Preliminaries 3

1.2.1 Functioning of Blockchain 3

1.2.2 Design of Blockchain 4

1.2.3 Blockchain Elements 5

1.3 Key Technologies of Blockchain 7

1.3.1 Distributed Ledger 7

1.3.2 Cryptography 8

1.3.3 Consensus 8

1.3.4 Smart Contracts 9

1.3.5 Benchmarks 9

1.4 Consensus Algorithms of Blockchain 9

1.4.1 Proof of Work (PoW) 10

1.4.2 Proof of Stake (PoS) 10

1.4.3 BFT-Based Consensus Algorithms 11

1.4.4 Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance (PBFT) 12

1.4.5 Sleepy Consensus 12

1.4.6 Proof of Elapsed Time (PoET) 12

1.4.7 Proof of Authority (PoA) 13

1.4.8 Proof of Reputation (PoR) 13

1.4.9 Deputized Proof of Stake (DPoS) 13

1.4.10 SCP Design 13

1.5 Internet of Things and Blockchain 14

1.5.1 Internet of Things 14

1.5.2 IoT Blockchain 16

1.5.3 Up-to-Date Tendency in IoT Blockchain Progress 16

1.6 Applications of Blockchain in Smart City 18

1.6.1 Digital Identity 18

1.6.2 Security of Private Information 19

1.6.3 Data Storing, Energy Ingesting, Hybrid Development 19

1.6.4 Citizens Plus Government Frame 20

1.6.5 Vehicle-Oriented Blockchain Appliances in Smart Cities 20

1.6.6 Financial Applications 21

1.7 Security and Privacy Properties of Blockchain 21

1.7.1 Security and Privacy Necessities of Online Business Transaction 21

1.7.2 Secrecy of Connections and Data Privacy 23

1.8 Privacy and Security Practices Employed in Blockchain 24

1.8.1 Mixing 24

1.8.2 Anonymous Signatures 25

1.8.3 Homomorphic Encryption (HE) 25

1.8.4 Attribute-Based Encryption (ABE) 26

1.8.5 Secure Multi-Party Computation (MPC) 26

1.8.6 Non-Interactive Zero-Knowledge (NIZK) 26

1.8.7 The Trusted Execution Environment (TEE) 27

1.8.8 Game-Based Smart Contracts (GBSC) 27

1.9 Challenges of Blockchain 27

1.9.1 Scalability 27

1.9.2 Privacy Outflow 28

1.9.3 Selfish Mining 28

1.9.4 Security 28

1.10 Conclusion 29

References 29

2 TOWARD SMART CITIES BASED ON THE INTERNET OF THINGS 33

Djamel Saba, Youcef Sahli and Abdelkader Hadidi

2.1 Introduction 34

2.2 Smart City Emergence 36

2.2.1 A Term Popularized by Private Foundations 36

2.2.2 Continuation of Ancient Reflections on the City of the Future 37

2.3 Smart and Sustainable City 38

2.4 Smart City Areas (Sub-Areas) 40

2.4.1 Technology and Data 40

2.4.2 Economy 40

2.4.3 Population 43

2.5 IoT 43

2.5.1 A New Dimension for the Internet and Objects 46

2.5.2 Issues Raised by the IoT 48

2.5.2.1 IoT Scale 48

2.5.2.2 IoT Heterogeneity 48

2.5.2.3 Physical World Influence on the IoT 51

2.5.2.4 Security and Privacy 52

2.5.3 Applications of the IoT That Revolutionize Society 52

2.5.3.1 IoT in the Field of Health 53

2.5.3.2 Digital Revolution in Response to Energy Imperatives 53

2.5.3.3 Home Automation (Connected Home) 54

2.5.3.4 Connected Industry 54

2.5.3.5 IoT in Agriculture 55

2.5.3.6 Smart Retail or Trendy Supermarkets 56

2.5.3.7 Smart and Connected Cities 57

2.5.3.8 IoT at the Service of Road Safety 57

2.5.3.9 Security Systems 59

2.5.3.10 Waste Management 60

2.6 Examples of Smart Cities 60

2.6.1 Barcelona, a Model Smart City 60

2.6.2 Vienna, the Smartest City in the World 61

2.7 Smart City Benefits 61

2.7.1 Security 61

2.7.2 Optimized Management of Drinking and Wastewater 62

2.7.3 Better Visibility of Traffic/Infrastructure Issues 64

2.7.4 Transport 64

2.8 Analysis and Discussion 65

2.9 Conclusion and Perspectives 67

References 68

3 INTEGRATION OF BLOCKCHAIN AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN SMART CITY PERSPECTIVES 77

R. Krishnamoorthy, K. Kamala, I. D. Soubache, Mamidala Vijay Karthik and M. Amina Begum

3.1 Introduction 78

3.2 Concept of Smart Cities, Blockchain Technology, and Artificial Intelligence 82

3.2.1 Concept and Definition of Smart Cities 82

3.2.1.1 Integration of Smart Cities with New Technologies 83

3.2.1.2 Development of Smart Cities by Integrated Technologies 85

3.2.2 Concept of Blockchain Technology 86

3.2.2.1 Features of Blockchain Technology 87

3.2.2.2 Framework and Working of Blockchain Technology 88

3.2.3 Concept and Definition of Artificial Intelligence 89

3.2.3.1 Classification of Artificial Intelligence– Machine Learning 90

3.3 Smart Cities Integrated with Blockchain Technology 91

3.3.1 Applications of Blockchain Technology in Smart City Development 93

3.3.1.1 Secured Data Transmission 93

3.3.1.2 Digital Transaction—Smart Contracts 94

3.3.1.3 Smart Energy Management 94

3.3.1.4 Modeling of Smart Assets 95

3.3.1.5 Smart Health System 96

3.3.1.6 Smart Citizen 96

3.3.1.7 Improved Safety 96

3.4 Smart Cities Integrated with Artificial Intelligence 97

3.4.1 Importance of AI for Developing Smart Cities 98

3.4.2 Applications of Artificial Intelligence in Smart City Development 99

3.4.2.1 Smart Transportation System 100

3.4.2.2 Smart Surveillance and Monitoring System 102

3.4.2.3 Smart Energy Management System 103

3.4.2.4 Smart Disposal and Waste Management System 106

3.5 Conclusion and Future Work 107

References 108

4 SMART CITY A CHANGE TO A NEW FUTURE WORLD 113

Sonia Singla and Aman Choudhary

4.1 Introduction 113

4.2 Role in Education 115

4.3 Impact of AI on Smart Cities 116

4.3.1 Botler AI 117

4.3.2 Spot 117

4.3.3 Nimb 117

4.3.4 Sawdhaan Application 117

4.3.5 Basic Use Cases of Traffic AI 118

4.4 AI and IoT Support in Agriculture 119

4.5 Smart Meter Reading 120

4.6 Conclusion 123

References 123

5 REGISTRATION OF VEHICLES WITH VALIDATION AND OBVIOUS MANNER THROUGH BLOCKCHAIN: SMART CITY APPROACH IN INDUSTRY 5.0 127

Rohit Rastogi, Bhuvneshwar Prasad Sharma and Muskan Gupta

5.1 Introduction 128

5.1.1 Concept of Smart Cities 128

5.1.2 Problem of Car Registration and Motivation 129

5.1.2.1 Research Objectives 129

5.1.2.2 Scope of the Research Work 129

5.1.3 5G Technology and Its Implications 130

5.1.4 IoT and Its Applications in Transportation 130

5.1.5 Usage of AI and ML in IoT and Blockchain 131

5.2 Related Work 131

5.2.1 Carchain 132

5.2.2 Fabcar IBM Blockchain 132

5.2.3 Blockchain and Future of Automobiles 132

5.2.4 Significance of 5G Technology 134

5.3 Presented Methodology 134

5.4 Software Requirement Specification 135

5.4.1 Product Perspective 135

5.4.1.1 Similarities Between Carchain and Our Application 135

5.4.1.2 Differences Between Carchain and Our Application 135

5.4.2 System Interfaces 136

5.4.3 Interfaces (Hardware and Software and Communication) 136

5.4.3.1 Hardware Interfaces 137

5.4.3.2 Software Interfaces 137

5.4.3.3 Communications Interfaces 138

5.4.4 Operations (Product Functions, User Characteristics) 138

5.4.4.1 Product Functions 138

5.4.4.2 User Characteristics 138

5.4.5 Use Case, Sequence Diagram 139

5.4.5.1 Use Case 139

5.4.5.2 Sequence Diagrams 141

5.4.5.3 System Design 142

5.4.5.4 Architecture Diagrams 143

5.5 Software and Hardware Requirements 150

5.5.1 Software Requirements 150

5.5.2 Hardware Requirements 151

5.6 Implementation Details 151

5.7 Results and Discussions 155

5.8 Novelty and Recommendations 156

5.9 Future Research Directions 157

5.10 Limitations 157

5.11 Conclusions 158

References 159

6 DESIGNING OF FUZZY CONTROLLER FOR ADAPTIVE CHAIR AND DESK SYSTEM 163

Puneet Kundra, Rashmi Vashisth and Ashwani Kumar Dubey

6.1 Introduction 163

6.2 Time Spent Sitting in Front of Computer Screen 165

6.3 Posture 166

6.3.1 Need for Correct Posture 167

6.3.2 Causes of Sitting in the Wrong Posture 167

6.4 Designing of Ergonomic Seat 167

6.4.1 Considerate Factors of an Ergonomic Chair and Desk System 168

6.5 Fuzzy Control Designing 170

6.5.1 Fuzzy Logic Controller Algorithm 171

6.5.2 Fuzzy Membership Functions 172

6.5.3 Rule Base 174

6.5.4 Why Fuzzy Controller? 176

6.6 Result of Chair and Desk Control 177

6.7 Conclusions and Further Improvements 177

References 181

7 BLOCKCHAIN TECHNOLOGY DISLOCATES TRADITIONAL PRACTICE THROUGH COST CUTTING IN INTERNATIONAL COMMODITY EXCHANGE 185

Arya Kumar

7.1 Introduction 185

7.1.1 Maintenance of Documents of Supply Chain in Commodity Trading 187

7.2 Blockchain Technology 191

7.2.1 Smart Contracts 191

7.3 Blockchain Solutions 193

7.3.1 Monte Carlo Simulation in Blockchain Solution - An Illustration 194

7.3.2 Supporting Blockchain Technology in the Food Industry Through Other Applications 199

7.4 Conclusion 200

7.5 Managerial Implication 201

7.6 Future Scope of Study 201

References 202

8 INTERPLANETARY FILE SYSTEM PROTOCOL–BASED BLOCKCHAIN FRAMEWORK FOR ROUTINE DATA AND SECURITY MANAGEMENT IN SMART FARMING 205

Sreethi Thangam M., Janeera D.A., Sherubha P., Sasirekha S.P., J. Geetha Ramani and Ruth Anita Shirley D.

8.1 Introduction 206

8.1.1 Blockchain Technology for Agriculture 207

8.2 Data Management in Smart Farming 208

8.2.1 Agricultural Information 209

8.2.2 Supply Chain Efficiency 209

8.2.3 Quality Management 210

8.2.4 Nutritional Value 210

8.2.5 Food Safety 211

8.2.6 IoT Automation 211

8.3 Proposed Smart Farming Framework 212

8.3.1 Wireless Sensors 212

8.3.2 Communication Channels 213

8.3.3 IoT and Cloud Computing 214

8.3.4 Blockchain and IPFS Integration 215

8.4 Farmers Support System 217

8.4.1 Sustainable Farming 218

8.5 Results and Discussions 219

8.5.1 Benefits and Challenges 219

8.6 Conclusion 221

8.7 Future Scope 221

References 221

9 A REVIEW ON BLOCKCHAIN TECHNOLOGY 225

Er. Aarti

9.1 Introduction 226

9.1.1 Characteristics of Blockchain Technology 227

9.1.1.1 Decentralization 228

9.1.1.2 Transparency 228

9.1.1.3 Immutability 228

9.2 Related Work 229

9.3 Architecture of Blockchain and Its Components 229

9.4 Blockchain Taxonomy 231

9.4.1 Public Blockchain 231

9.4.2 Consortium Blockchain 231

9.4.3 Private Blockchain 232

9.5 Consensus Algorithms 233

9.5.1 Functions of Blockchain Consensus Mechanisms 233

9.5.2 Some Approaches to Consensus 234

9.5.2.1 Proof of Work (PoW) 234

9.5.2.2 Proof of Stake (PoS) 235

9.5.2.3 Delegated Proof of Stake (DPoS) 236

9.5.2.4 Leased Proof of Stake (LPoS) 237

9.5.2.5 Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance (PBFT) 237

9.5.2.6 Proof of Burn (PoB) 238

9.5.2.7 Proof of Elapsed Time (PoET) 239

9.6 Challenges in Terms of Technologies 239

9.7 Major Application Areas 240

9.7.1 Finance 240

9.7.2 Education 240

9.7.3 Secured Connection 240

9.7.4 Health 240

9.7.5 Insurance 241

9.7.6 E-Voting 241

9.7.7 Smart Contracts 241

9.7.8 Waste and Sanitation 241

9.8 Conclusion 242

References 242

10 TECHNOLOGICAL DIMENSION OF A SMART CITY 247

Laxmi Kumari Pathak, Shalini Mahato and Soni Sweta

10.1 Introduction 247

10.2 Major Advanced Technological Components of ICT in Smart City 249

10.2.1 Internet of Things 249

10.2.2 Big Data 250

10.2.3 Artificial Intelligence 250

10.3 Different Dimensions of Smart Cities 250

10.4 Issues Related to Smart Cities 250

10.5 Conclusion 265

References 266

11 BLOCKCHAIN—DOES IT UNLEASH THE HITCHED CHAINS OF CONTEMPORARY TECHNOLOGIES 269

Abigail Christina Fernandez and Thamarai Selvi Rajukannu

11.1 Introduction 270

11.2 Historic Culmination of Blockchain 271

11.3 The Hustle About Blockchain—Revealed 272

11.3.1 How Does It Work? 273

11.3.2 Consent in Accordance—Consensus Algorithm 273

11.4 The Unique Upfront Statuesque of Blockchain 275

11.4.1 Key Elements of Blockchain 275

11.4.2 Adversaries Manoeuvred by Blockchain 276

11.4.2.1 Double Spending Problem 276

11.4.2.2 Selfish Mining and Eclipse Attacks 276

11.4.2.3 Smart Contracts 277

11.4.3 Breaking the Clutches of Centralized Operations 277

11.5 Blockchain Compeers Complexity 278

11.6 Paradigm Shift to Deciphering Technologies Adjoining Blockchain 279

11.7 Convergence of Blockchain and AI Toward a Sustainable Smart City 280

11.8 Business Manifestations of Blockchain 282

11.9 Constraints to Adapt to the Resilient Blockchain 287

11.10 Conclusion 287

References 288

12 AN OVERVIEW OF BLOCKCHAIN TECHNOLOGY: ARCHITECTURE AND CONSENSUS PROTOCOLS 293

Himanshu Rastogi

12.1 Introduction 294

12.2 Blockchain Architecture 295

12.2.1 Block Structure 296

12.2.2 Hashing and Digital Signature 297

12.3 Consensus Algorithm 298

12.3.1 Compute-Intensive–Based Consensus (CIBC) Protocols 300

12.3.1.1 Pure Proof of Work (PoW) 300

12.3.1.2 Prime Number Proof of Work

(Prime Number PoW) 300

12.3.1.3 Delayed Proof of Work (DPoW) 301

12.3.2 Capability-Based Consensus Protocols 302

12.3.2.1 Proof of Stake (PoS) 302

12.3.2.2 Delegated Proof of Stake (DPoS) 303

12.3.2.3 Proof of Stake Velocity (PoSV) 303

12.3.2.4 Proof of Burn (PoB) 304

12.3.2.5 Proof of Space (PoSpace) 304

12.3.2.6 Proof of History (PoH) 305

12.3.2.7 Proof of Importance (PoI) 305

12.3.2.8 Proof of Believability (PoBelievability) 306

12.3.2.9 Proof of Authority (PoAuthority) 307

12.3.2.10 Proof of Elapsed Time (PoET) 307

12.3.2.11 Proof of Activity (PoA) 308

12.3.3 Voting-Based Consensus Protocols 308

12.3.3.1 Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance (PBFT) 309

12.3.3.2 Delegated Byzantine Fault Tolerance (DBFT) 310

12.3.3.3 Federated Byzantine Arrangement (FBA) 310

12.3.3.4 Combined Delegated Proof of Stake and Byzantine Fault Tolerance (DPoS+BFT) 311

12.4 Conclusion 312

References 312

13 APPLICABILITY OF UTILIZING BLOCKCHAIN TECHNOLOGY IN SMART CITIES DEVELOPMENT 317

Auwal Alhassan Musa, Shashivendra Dulawat, Kabeer Tijjani Saleh and Isyaku Auwalu Alhassan

13.1 Introduction 318

13.2 Smart Cities Concept 319

13.3 Definition of Smart Cities 320

13.4 Legal Framework by EU/AIOTI of Smart Cities 321

13.5 The Characteristic of Smart Cities 322

13.5.1 Climate and Environmentally Friendly 322

13.5.2 Livability 322

13.5.3 Sustainability 323

13.5.4 Efficient Resources Management 323

13.5.5 Resilient 323

13.5.6 Dynamism 323

13.5.7 Mobility 323

13.6 Challenges Faced by Smart Cities 324

13.6.1 Security Challenge 324

13.6.2 Generation of Huge Data 324

13.6.3 Concurrent Information Update 325

13.6.4 Energy Consumption Challenge 325

13.7 Blockchain Technology at Glance 325

13.8 Key Drivers to the Implementation of Blockchain Technology for Smart Cities Development 327

13.8.1 Internet of Things (IoT) 328

13.8.2 Architectural Organization of the Internet of Things 328

13.9 Challenges of Utilizing Blockchain in Smart City Development 329

13.9.1 Security and Privacy as a Challenge to Blockchain Technology 330

13.9.2 Lack of Cooperation 331

13.9.3 Lack of Regulatory Clarity and Good Governance 331

13.9.4 Energy Consumption and Environmental Cost 332

13.10 Solution Offered by Blockchain to Smart Cities Challenges 332

13.10.1 Secured Data 333

13.10.2 Smart Contract 333

13.10.3 Easing the Smart Citizen Involvement 333

13.10.4 Ease of Doing Business 333

13.10.5 Development of Sustainable Infrastructure 333

13.10.6 Transparency in Protection and Security 334

13.10.7 Consistency and Auditability of Data Record 334

13.10.8 Effective, Efficient Automation Process 334

13.10.9 Secure Authentication 335

13.10.10 Reliability and Continuity of the Basic Services 335

13.10.11 Crisis and Violence Management 335

13.11 Conclusion 335

References 336

About the Editors 341

Index 343
Artikel-Details
Anbieter:
Wiley
Autor:
Bharti Sharma, Jyotir Moy Chatterjee, Rakesh Shrestha, Vishal Jain, Vishal Kumar
Artikelnummer:
9781119785545
Veröffentlicht:
17.02.2022
Seitenanzahl:
384